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BERIMBAU

The berimbau creates the climate and dictates the game that will be played in the roda. The old masters say: "The berimbau teaches" The berimbau create a current and a vibration that, along with the clapping, the singing, the pandeiro and atabaque, influence the players. 

There are three types of berimbau

*
Gunga - acts as the bass: marks the rhythm; 
*
Medio -  doubles over the basic rhythm of the Gunga
* Viola - or
violinha, makes the "contratoques" and improvisation:  

The berimbau is made with a wooden bow (called biribŠ), and with a wire secured at both ends of this arc. A gourd with an opening on one side is attached to the bottom of the outer arc, about 15-30 centimetres from the tip of the instrument, with a piece of rope. This rope is also tied around the wire, and when pressed, changes the sound. The tones of the berimbau are modified by the approach and retraction of the gourd to the body of the musician, thereby opening or closing the hole. The other three components: the doubloon, which is held against the wire, a small rod to hit the wire  (baqueta) and caxixi. 
Also known by several other names like Urucungo, orucungo, oricungo, uricungo, rucungo, berimbau de barriga  de barriga, gobo, marimbau, bucumbumba, gunga, macungo, Matunga and rucumbo. In Cuba it is called sambi, pandigurao, and gorokikamo burumbumba & in Mozambique, Xitende  
    

 

Atabaque

Instrument of Arabic origin, which was introduced in Africa by merchants entering the continent through the northern countries, like Egypt. It is usually made of hardwood such as rosewood, mahogany or cedar, cut into wide strips and attached to each other with iron arches of different diameter, from bottom to top, which gives the instrument a conical-cylindrical shape. At the top,  "locks" that hold a piece of tanned and very tautra whide and  are placed. It is the atabaque that marks the rhythm of the beat the game. Along with the pandeiro which accompanies the berimbau.

 Pandeiro

Percussion instrument of Indian origin that requires considerable technique to be played.Pandeiros may have leather or plastic skins. They come in various sizes, with 25 and 30 centimetres being the most common. The leather skins produce better sound quality, but have adjustment problems caused by climate change, hence the plastic skins are most frequently found. The pandeiro is held by one hand, while the fingertips, thumb and base of the other hand are used to play the instrument. The open and closed tones can be obtained by using the thumb or middle finger of the hand holding the instrument. The thumb can mute the skin side, the middle finger can mute the underside.

It was introduced in Brazil by the Portuguese, who used it to accompany religious processions. It is the rhythmic sound of the pandeiro that accompanies the sound of the caxixi, giving the sound of the roda a "swing". The pandeiro player is allowed to execute embellishments and turns to grace the music.

AgogŰ

Instrument of African origin consisting of a small arc, a metal handle with a metal cone in each corner, these cones are of different sizes, thus producing different sounds that are also produced with the aid of a rod that hits in the cones 

Reco-Reco

Percussion instrument made, are made of metal or wooden boxes with grooves cut on the top or tubes of metal springs stretched along its length. They are played by sliding a metal or wooden stick against the springs or ridges. It is used in capoeira Angola.